Mccabe thiele diagram ethanol water
The McCabe—Thiele method is considered to be the simplest and perhaps most instructive method for the analysis of binary distillation. The method was first published by Warren L. Before starting the construction and use of a McCabe—Thiele diagram for the distillation of a binary feed, the vapor—liquid equilibrium VLE data must be obtained for the lower-boiling component of the feed.
The first step is to draw equal sized vertical and horizontal axes of a graph. The horizontal axis will be for the mole fraction denoted by x of the lower-boiling feed component in the liquid phase.
The vertical axis will be for the mole fraction denoted by y of the lower-boiling feed component in the vapor phase. The next step is to draw a straight line from the origin of the graph to the point where x and y both equal 1.
This 45 degree line is used simply as a graphical aid for drawing the remaining lines. Then draw the equilibrium line using the VLE data points of the lower boiling component, representing the equilibrium vapor phase compositions for each value of liquid phase composition. The next step is to draw the operating line for the rectifying section the section above the feed inlet of the distillation columnshown in green in Figure 1.
Some example q-line slopes are presented in Figure 2. As can be seen now, the typical McCabe-Thiele diagram in Figure 1 uses a q-line representing a partially vaporized feed. Next, as shown in Figure 1, draw the purple operating line for the stripping section of the distillation column i. Finally, as exemplified in Figure 1, draw the steps between operating lines and the equilibrium line and then count them. Those steps represent the theoretical plates or equilibrium stages.
The required number of theoretical plates is 6 for the binary distillation depicted in Figure 1. Note that using colored lines is not required and only used here to make the methodology easier to describe.
In continuous distillation with varying reflux ratio, the mole fraction of the lighter component in the top part of the distillation column will decrease as the reflux ratio decreases. Each new reflux ratio will alter the slope of the rectifying section operating line. When the assumption of constant molar overflow is not valid, the operating lines will not be straight. Using mass and enthalpy balances in addition to vapor-liquid equilibrium data and enthalpy-concentration data, operating lines can be constructed based on Ponchon—Savarit's method.
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Figure 1: Typical McCabe—Thiele diagram for distillation of a binary feed. Figure 2: Examples of q-line slopes. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering 3rd ed. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook 6th ed. Chemical Engineering Progress. Thiele June Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Judson Separation Processes.
Batch distillation Continuous distillation Fractionating column Spinning cone. Alembic Kugelrohr Rotary evaporator Spinning band distillation Still.Distillation: Deriving McCabe-Thiele using MB & EB
Categories : Distillation. Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles with style issues from February All articles with style issues. Namespaces Article Talk.Updated 25 Jul The program computes the number of equilibrium stages for a binary ideal mixture with relative volatility equal to 2. The feed is a two phase mixture with a feed quality is equal to 0.
The distillate, feed and bottom mole fractions are 0. The reflux ratio is taken to be 1. We draw the McCabe and Thiele Diagram and get the number of theoretical plates equal to 9. A similar code using Mathematica 6.
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Distillation Design For Ethanol Water
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Plant Modeling for Control Design. High Performance Computing. Binary Distillation with the McCabe-Thiele Method Binary fractional distillation is a means of separating two liquid components via a distillation column which contains a number of trays, or stages. This application calculates the required number of theoretical stages for a set of specified operating parameters via the McCabe-Thiele method. It plots the classic McCabe-Thiele diagram and evaluates the minimum and actual reflux ratio, and the thermodynamic state of the feed.
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Evaluate Maple. Move the slider to rate. Please note that much of the Application Center contains content submitted directly from members of our user community. Although we do our best to monitor for objectionable content, it is possible that we occasionally miss something. If there is something objectionable on this page, please click here to report it.A McCabe-Thiele plot is a simplified tool to assist in understanding distillation.
It is a method for calculating the number of theoretical trays required for the distillation of a binary mixture.
McCabe-Thiele Graphical Method for a Non-Ideal Binary Mixture
This article describes how to apply the McCabe-Thiele method. McCabe-Thiele plots provide a simple, graphical tool for the analysis of binary distillations, specifically the determination of the number of trays required. Many real world applications are too complex for the McCabe-Thiele method however it provides a great tool for learning the basic thermodynamics of tray distillation, as well as understanding the impact of reflux rate, feed composition, product composition and vapor-liquid equilibrium on distillation column design.
To understand the terminology and discussing distillation in general please see our article on Distillation Basics. Assumptions The McCabe-Thiele method is a very simplistic model of distillation and subject to the following assumptions:.
In this section we describe the McCabe-Thiele method step by step, however prior to starting several pieces of information are required:.
We begin with a basic x-y plot. On the x-axis is mole fraction of the lighter component in the liquid phase. On the y-axis is the mole fraction of the lighter component in the vapor phase. Plot the vapor-liquid equilibrium or VLE curve of the binary mixture. Step 4: Choose Product Compositions Mark the composition of the feed, top and bottom products on the x-axis. The design of the distillation column is effected by the vapor fraction and temperature of the feed.
This is shown on a McCabe-Thiele plot using the feed condition line. Where the feed is saturated liquid the line is vertical. Where the feed is a saturated vapor the line is horizontal.
For feeds lying between a saturated vapor and a saturated liquid we can use a simple formula to determine the slope of the feed condition line:. For feeds lying outside this range sub-cooled or super-heated we first determine the extent using the formula below and then feed the result q into the previous formula to determine the slope of the feed condition line. When vapor leaves the top of the column it is cooled and liquefied.
Some of this stream is taken away as the top product while the rest is returned to the column as reflux.
The reflux liquid travels down the column in the opposite direction to the rising vapor. The liquid "swaps" heavy components in the vapor for light components in the liquid, concentrating the light component in the vapor. The rectifying section operating line describes the amount of liquid sent back down the rectifying section as reflux.
Due to assumptions of the McCabe-Thiele method, the operating line estimates how much the composition can change at each tray, increasing reflux results in bigger steps and thus less trays. To determine the slope of the operating line we need to know the molar flow rate of both the top product D and the reflux returned to the column L.
Similarly to the rectifying section, the operating line of the stripping section represents the gas travelling back up the column after leaving the reboiler. This hot gas vaporises light components in the liquid travelling down the column in exchange for condensing heavy components from the gas. Once the rectifying and stripping section lines are completed the theoretical trays are drawn on the plot. A vertical line is then drawn down from this point until it meets one of the two operating lines.
This process is repeated until the last vertical line falls to the left of the bottom product line. The number of theoretical trays can now be determined by counting the number of times the horizontal 'steps' touch the VLE curve include the line that passes the bottoms product line. These trays are counted starting at the top right and moving to the bottom left.
Reflux rate has a significant impact on the performance of a distillation column. With a higher reflux rate, the number of trays required decreases. Note that this increase in efficiency doesn't come for free, as in practice you will need a wider column to handle all of this liquid, as well as a larger reboiler to make enough vapour to send back through the liquid.
Pushing for a finer separation i. This results in rapid increase in the number of trays for ever smaller increases in purity. The difficulty of a separation is determined by the similarity of the two components. Separating two very different components, for example ethane C 2 H 6 and decane C 10 H 22 is easy.Main Window.
Azeotrope in the mixture of ethanol and water. You can specify the vapor-liquid equilibrium in two ways:. See the VLE tables included with the application for:.
We can change this way: Relative volatility, mole fractions of feed, distillate and bottoms. Operational lines and q-line. Shows the enriching operating line, exhausting operating line, q-line and equations of each one. We can move the q-point point of intersection of these lines on the McCabe-Thiele diagram.
Number of each theoretical tray. Shows the number of each theoretical tray in the McCabe-Thiele diagram. Other features. All rights reserved. Mobile view. Educational resources. Maths software. Physics software. Worksheets Generators. Maths, Physics, Chemistry. McCabe-Thiele Method. Design of distillation columns. Beam deflection calculator. For Civil Engineering.Yes that was exactly the problem I had initially, just make sure that you close or minimize the original graph that the binary analisys creates, and then re-enter the plot wizard to find window wich offers multiple plot types available in ASPEN.
If this isn't what your problem is, please try and explain a little beter. Post a Comment. September 17, Its been a really long time since I made any posts, sorry for that but work sometimes gets in the way of the things I like doing, like updating my blog. For this example I used the old classic ethanol and water problem.
I selected Ethanol and Water as my two components, and remember that there can be multiple components in your system, and when making your XY diagram you can select only the two components that you are interested in Click on the "Next" button.
Step6: Choose a Property Method. Click "Go". I hope this was of any help, and feel free to leave any comments to help me improve this post.
Ruan 9 October at Unknown 19 April at Unknown 9 May at Unknown 13 July at Popular Posts October 13, Step8: Make sure you have the correct components.Jump to content. Low Flow in Pipes - posted in Ankur's blog.
Posted 09 April - PM. Posted 10 April - AM. Community Forum Software by IP. Featured Articles Check out the latest featured articles.
File Library Check out the latest downloads available in the File Library. New Article Product Viscosity vs. Featured File Vertical Tank Selection. This topic has been archived. This means that you cannot reply to this topic. I am have to design a distillation system for ethanol production. The mixture is ethanol and water and I need to use McCabe Thiele method. It a paper design so I need to assume all the parameters. Can anyone suggest the values of the various parameters used in the McCabe Thiele.??
Please reply as soon as possible!!! I believe doing paper based McCabe Thiele calculations is an excellent way to develop an appreciation for what is actually happening in the column. When you specify the concentrations of the ethanol you must include the basis. Distillation calculations are usually based on molar concentrations, but in the plant the concentrations could be given in mass or volume terms.
The number of stages you will need will be much more than 2. Typically an ethanol rectifier would have about 8 theoretical stages in the stripping section, and about 35 in the rectification section. You will see how the pinch point develops when you plot your McCabe Thiele diagram.